Languages of Limited Diffusion

The mission of the Languages of Lesser Diffusion (LLD) work group is to support trainers working with interpreters of languages of limited diffusion.  Their focus includes, but is not limited to, the identification of resources, as well as information and guidance on dealing with language proficiency testing, help developing technical terminology, and supporting interpreting students who speak LLDs, including those for which there is no written form or only minimal diffusion of a written form. If you have resources to contribute to the database, if you want to comment on a listed resource or if you have other questions or comments, please contact us at: [email protected].

LLD Conversations

LLD Conversations with Maddy Cheema

LLD Conversations with
Muhammad Cheema

Join us for another LLD Conversations episode with Mark Rockford learning about difficulties in the interpreting work of Muhammad Ammad Cheema, an Urdu/ Hindi/ Punjabi interpreterClick here to view the recording.

Published June 2023

Interview with Habibulla Josefi

LLD Conversations with
Habibulla Josefi

Check out our latest LLD Conversations episode with Maria Schwieter discussing professional hurdles the Dari interprets face in their daily work with Afghan refugees in the United Kingdom. Click here to view the recording.

Published May 2023

LLD Conversations with Alex Chavez and Herberth Garcia

Tune in to our new episode on obstacles Mam interpreters overcome in their daily work and how they deal with them. Click here to view the recording.

Published March 2023

LLD Conversations with
Ludmila Golovine

Check out our latest episode of NCIHC's LLD Conversations. Trained interpreters are needed in all languages.  Click here to view the recording.

Published October 2022

LLD Conversations with Bindiya Jha

Check out our second episode of NCIHC's LLD Conversations. It is very common that many English words are not available in your language. This episode discusses the unique challenges involved.  Click here to view the recording.

Published September 2022

LLD Conversations with Brigida Gonzalez Salvador

Watch the premiere episode of NCIHC's LLD Conversations.  Get a behind-the-scenes look at our LLD Work Group and what they are doing to help further the mission of NCIHC.  Click here to view the recording.

Published August 2022


#GLAD23 - Q&A with Veronica Costea. 
Click Here for more information.
The Languages of Limited Diffusion (LLD) Workgroup is developing a Resource Data Base for the use of interpreter trainers in need of a range of resources such as Web sites, dictionaries, glossaries, and others. We will update the LLD Resource Database monthly. To search the EXCEL database use ctrl f and type your keyword like 'Arabic' or 'kidney'.


Languages of Limited Diffusion Resource Database

We have linked resources that have been reviewed directly to their review for your convenience. Resources with a “Review” companion have been identified as “This resource has been reviewed…” in the title column.

PLEASE NOTEThe link will only be active once you download the file to your computer.

Click here to access

LLD COVID-19 Resources document

Click here to access

List of helpful LLD Training Tips!

Click here to access


Reviewed Resources List

Click here to access

LLD Defined

Defining the term “languages of limited diffusion” (LLD) is a little harder than it looks because there are a variety of perspectives used when looking at LLDs.  Most broadly, an LLD is any language in a geographic area in the U.S.--like a city, county or region—where the population of speakers is relatively small.  A specific language like French may be an LLD in Ames, Iowa but not in New York City.  Another way to look at LLD is that a language has only a small population in its country of origin. A language like Munduruku is an example of this perspective.  LLDs can be further subdivided between languages with a rich history of writing and many available resources (dictionaries, grammars, medical books) in contrast to groups without this as well as low levels of literacy and education for the speakers.